ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Plasmodium pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is only essential for the parasite's progression from liver infection to blood infection.

Pei, Y., Tarun, A. S., Vaughan, A. M., Herman, R. W., Soliman, J. M., Erickson-Wayman, A., Kappe, S. H. (2010 Jan 5, Mol Microbiol)

Summary Plasmodium parasites possess a single pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) enzyme complex that is localized to the plastid-like organelle known as the apicoplast. Unlike most eukaryotes, Plasmodium lacks a mitochondrial PDH. The PDH complex catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, an important precursor for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II). In this study, using a rodent malaria model, we show that the PDH E1alpha and E3 subunits co-localize with the FAS II enzyme FabI in the apicoplast of liver stages but are not significantly expressed in blood stages. Deletion of the E1alpha or E3 subunit genes of P. yoelii PDH caused no defect in blood stage development, mosquito stage development or early liver stage development. However, the gene deletions completely blocked the ability of the e1alpha(-) and e3(-) parasites to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites during late liver stage development, thus preventing the initiation of a blood stage infection. This phenotype is similar to that observed for deletions of genes involved in FAS II elongation. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the sole role of PDH is to provide acetyl-CoA for FAS II.

PubMed: 20059687, full text

Localisation information

PY00819 (PDH E1a) pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit

Experimental localisation: not schizont, nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite, nowhere except apicoplast during hepatocyte schizont
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "However, no significant E1α-myc expression was detected in schizonts (Figure 1A & 1B) or other blood stage forms of the parasite (data not shown) when probed with a number of anti-myc antibodies. … P. yoelii PDH E1α-myc and E3-myc subunits localize to the apicoplast of sporozoites and liver stages"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: myc tag
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: Orthology via OrthoMCL to T. gondii
  • Localisation record: not during schizont, nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite and liver stage schizont

PY00573 (PDH E3) dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase

Experimental localisation: not schizont, nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite, nowhere except apicoplast during hepatocyte schizont
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "However, no significant E1α-myc expression was detected in schizonts (Figure 1A & 1B) or other blood stage forms of the parasite (data not shown) when probed with a number of anti-myc antibodies. … P. yoelii PDH E1α-myc and E3-myc subunits localize to the apicoplast of sporozoites and liver stages"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: myc tag
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: Orthology via OrthoMCL to T. gondii
  • Localisation record: not during schizont, nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite and liver stage schizont

PY04421 (HEP17, exp-1) U43539 hepatocyte erythrocyte protein 17 kDa

Experimental localisation: schizont
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "As shown in Figure 1A and 1B, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) expression and expression of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) marker hepatocyte erythrocyte protein (Hep17) was observed in schizont stages."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: surface during merozoite
  • Localisation record: during schizont

PY05748 (MSP-1, MSP1) merozoite surface protein 1 precursor

Experimental localisation: schizont
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "As shown in Figure 1A and 1B, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) expression and expression of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) marker hepatocyte erythrocyte protein (Hep17) was observed in schizont stages."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: PVM during schizont
  • Localisation record: during schizont

PY03846 (FabI) enoyl-acyl carrier reductase

Experimental localisation: nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite, nowhere except apicoplast during hepatocyte schizont
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "To confirm apicoplast localization of E1α and E3, we generated an antibody against P. yoelii FabI to be used as an apicoplast marker and utilized this antibody in subsequent IFAs. The co-localization of E1α-myc and E3-myc with FabI confirmed that PDH, as previously shown for P. falciparum (Foth et al., 2005) is exclusively targeted to the apicoplast in P. yoelii (Figure 2B & 2D)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: Orthology via OrthoMCL to P. falciparum
  • Localisation record: nowhere except apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite and liver stage schizont