ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development.

Vaughan, A. M., O'Neill, M. T., Tarun, A. S., Camargo, N., Phuong, T. M., Aly, A. S., Cowman, A. F., Kappe, S. H. (2009 Mar, Cell Microbiol)

Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of FabB/F, a critical enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, did not affect parasite blood stage replication, mosquito stage development and initial infection in the liver. This was confirmed by knockout of FabZ, another critical FAS II enzyme. However, FAS II-deficient Plasmodium yoelii liver stages failed to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites, the invasive stage that first initiates blood stage infection. Furthermore, deletion of FabI in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum did not show a reduction in asexual blood stage replication in vitro. Malaria parasites therefore depend on the intrinsic FAS II pathway only at one specific life cycle transition point, from liver to blood.

PubMed: 19068099, full text

Localisation information

PY03846 (FabI) enoyl-acyl carrier reductase

Experimental localisation: not oocyst, not oocyst sporozoite, not blood stages, apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoite, apicoplast during 7 hours post sporozoite infection, apicoplast during 14 hours post sporozoite infection, apicoplast during 24 hours post sporozoite infection, apicoplast during 40 hours post sporozoite infection, apicoplast during 48 hours post sporozoite infection
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "FabI-myc expression was not detectable in the developing mosquito midgut oocysts and also not in oocyst sporozoites (Fig. S2). .. we assume that the FabI-myc expression we detected in salivary gland sporozoites is apicoplast specific (Fig. 2A). .. These results show that FabI expression is initiated in salivary gland sporozoites and that there is robust apicoplast-specific FabI expression throughout liver stage development."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: myc tag
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: not during mosquito midgut oocysts and oocyst sporozoites and blood stages, apicoplast during salivary gland sporozoites and 7 hours post sporozoite infection and 14 hours post sporozoite infection and 24 hours post sporozoite infection and 40 hours post sporozoite infection and 48 hours post sporozoite infection

PY03168 (CS, CSP, S2) circumsporozoite protein

Experimental localisation: salivary gland sporozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium yoelii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "The salivary gland sporozoite was detected with a mouse anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody and the liver stage cytoplasm was detected with a mouse anti-heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) antibody."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 17XNL
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: during salivary gland sporozoite