ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Organellar dynamics during the cell cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.

Nishi, M., Hu, K., Murray, J. M., Roos, D. S. (2008 May 1, J Cell Sci)

The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa encompasses approximately 5000 species of obligate intracellular parasites, including those responsible for malaria and toxoplasmosis. Rather than dividing by binary fission, apicomplexans use a remarkable mechanism for replication, assembling daughters de novo within the cytoplasm. Here, we exploit time-lapse microscopy of fluorescent markers targeted to various subcellular structures in Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites to determine how these unicellular eukaryotes efficiently package a complete set of organelles, maintaining the highly polarized organization necessary for host cell invasion and pathogenesis. Golgi division and elongation of the apicoplast are among the first morphologically observable events, associated with an unusual pattern of centriolar migration. Daughter parasites are assembled on cytoskeletal scaffolding, whose growth proceeds from the apical end, first encapsulating the divided Golgi. Further extension of the cytoskeletal scaffold results in partitioning of the apicoplast, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and finally the mitochondrion, which enters the developing daughters rapidly, but only very late during the division cycle. The specialized secretory organelles (micronemes and rhoptries) form de novo. This distinctive pattern of replication -- in which organellar segregation spans approximately 75% of the cell cycle, completely encompassing S phase -- suggests an unusual mechanism of cell cycle regulation.

PubMed: 18411248, full text

Localisation information

TGME49_061980 (GRASP, GRASP55) gorasp2-prov protein

Experimental localisation: golgi apparatus during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Time-lapse images of living parasites, labeled for simultaneous visualization of the inner membrane complex of mother and daughter parasites (IMC1-YFP, green) and the Golgi complex (GRASP-mRFP, red)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: mRFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: golgi during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_031640 (IMC1, ALV1, IMC, NET1) membrane skeletal protein IMC1

Experimental localisation: inner membrane complex during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Middle column, fixed parasites labeled to image the inner membrane complex (IMC1-YFP, green), apicoplast (anti-ACP, red) and nucleus (DAPI, blue)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: YFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: inner membrane complex during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_064080 (ACP) acyl carrier protein

Experimental localisation: apicoplast during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Middle column, fixed parasites labeled to image the inner membrane complex (IMC1-YFP, green), apicoplast (anti-ACP, red) and nucleus (DAPI, blue)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: apicoplast during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_047230 (centrin) caltractin (centrin), putative

Experimental localisation: centriole during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "mRFP tag, DsRed"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: YFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: centriole during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_109590 (ROP1) rhoptry protein, putative

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Parasites expressing MIC3-GFP (left two columns, green) or ROP1-CAT-YFP (right two columns, green) were transfected with IMC1-mRFP (red) in order to track microneme or rhoptry biogenesis."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: YFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_119560 (MIC3, MIC 3) microneme protein MIC3

Experimental localisation: microneme during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Parasites expressing MIC3-GFP (left two columns, green) or ROP1-CAT-YFP (right two columns, green) were transfected with IMC1-mRFP (red) in order to track microneme or rhoptry biogenesis."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: GFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: micronemes during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_047550 (Hsp60, HSP60) heat shock protein 60

Experimental localisation: mitochondrion during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "the mitochondrial targeting signal is from HSP60."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: mRFP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: mitochondrion during intracellular tachyzoite