ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Alveolins, a new family of cortical proteins that define the protist infrakingdom Alveolata.

Gould, S. B., Tham, W. H., Cowman, A. F., McFadden, G. I., Waller, R. F. (2008 Jun, Mol Biol Evol)

Alveolates are a recently recognized group of unicellular eukaryotes that unites disparate protists including apicomplexan parasites (which cause malaria and toxoplasmosis), dinoflagellate algae (which cause red tides and are symbionts in many corals), and ciliates (which are microscopic predators and common rumen symbionts). Gene sequence trees provide robust support for the alveolate alliance, but beyond the common presence of membranous sacs (alveoli) subtending the plasma membrane, the group has no unifying morphological feature. We describe a family of proteins, alveolins, associated with these membranous sacs in apicomplexa, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. Alveolins contain numerous simple peptide repeats and are encoded by multigene families. We generated antibodies against a peptide motif common to all alveolins and identified a range of apparently abundant proteins in apicomplexa, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. Immunolocalization reveals that alveolins are associated exclusively with the cortical regions of apicomplexa, dinoflagellates, and ciliates where the alveolar sacs occur. Alveolins are the first molecular nexus between the unifying structures that defines this eukaryotic group. They provide an excellent opportunity to explore the exceptional compartment that was apparently the key to a remarkable diversification of unique protists that occupy a wide array of lifestyle niches.

PubMed: 18359944, full text

Localisation information

PFC0180c (ALV1) inner membrane complex protein 1a, putative

Experimental localisation: inner membrane complex during gametocyte
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Alveolins localize to the cortical regions of alveolate cells. Immunofluorescence detection of alveolin proteins in the dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum (A–D), gametocytes of the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (E–H), and the ciliate Paramecium caudatum (I–L)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: alveoli during gametocyte

TGME49_031640 (IMC1, ALV1, IMC, NET1) membrane skeletal protein IMC1

Experimental localisation: beneath alveoli during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "FIG. 5.— Immunolocalization of alveolins beneath the alveoli in the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii."
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody to homologue
  • Strain: RH HXGPRT–
  • Gene model mapping comments: taken directly from 18359944
  • Localisation record: beneath alveoli during tachyzoite

TGME49_033460 (SAG1, SRS29B, P30/SAG1, BSR4, P30) SRS29B (= SAG1, P30)

Experimental localisation: parasite plasma membrane during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "IFAs of tachyzoites using antisera to the plasma membrane marker surface antigen 1 (red) and alveolins (green) and DNA stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (blue)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method:
  • Strain: RH HXGPRT–
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: plasma membrane during tachyzoite
  • Comment: localisation method not discussed