ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Proteomic analysis of rhoptry organelles reveals many novel constituents for host-parasite interactions in Toxoplasma gondii.

Bradley, P. J., Ward, C., Cheng, S. J., Alexander, D. L., Coller, S., Coombs, G. H., Dunn, J. D., Ferguson, D. J., Sanderson, S. J., Wastling, J. M., Boothroyd, J. C. (2005 Oct 7, J Biol Chem)

Rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles that are uniquely present within protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. These obligate intracellular parasites comprise some of the most important parasites of humans and animals, including the causative agents of malaria (Plasmodium spp.) and chicken coccidiosis (Eimeria spp.). The contents of the rhoptries are released into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole during invasion into the host cell, and the resulting proteins often represent the literal interface between host and pathogen. We have developed a method for highly efficient purification of rhoptries from one of the best studied Apicomplexa, Toxoplasma gondii, and we carried out a detailed proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry that has identified 38 novel proteins. To confirm their rhoptry origin, antibodies were raised to synthetic peptides and/or recombinant protein. Eleven of 12 of these yielded antibody that showed strong rhoptry staining by immunofluorescence within the rhoptry necks and/or their bulbous base. Hemagglutinin epitope tagging confirmed one additional novel protein as from the rhoptry bulb. Previously identified rhoptry proteins from Toxoplasma and Plasmodium were unique to one or the other organism, but our elucidation of the Toxoplasma rhoptry proteome revealed homologues that are common to both. This study also identified the first Toxoplasma genes encoding rhoptry neck proteins, which we named RONs, demonstrated that toxofilin and Rab11 are rhoptry proteins, and identified novel kinases, phosphatases, and proteases that are likely to play a key role in the ability of the parasite to invade and co-opt the host cell for its own survival and growth.

PubMed: 16002398, full text

Localisation information

TGME49_115490 (ROP10) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Localization of rhoptry proteomic hits using anti-peptide antibodies"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody to fragment
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_106060 (RON8) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: apicoplast during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "The second anti-peptide antibody (corresponding to TgTwinScan_2001) localized to the plastid as shown by co-localization using Hoechst staining of the 35-kb plastid DNA"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: plastid during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_014080 (Toxofilin) toxofilin

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Toxofilin staining extends from the rhoptry bodies into the rhoptry necks"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: His6 tagged
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_089680 (Rab11, Rab11A) Ras family domain-containing protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry, posterior
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Toxofilin and Rab11 localize to the rhoptries... antibodies raised against recombinant Rab11 largely stains the rhoptries as shown by ROP2 co-localization. Additional staining in the posterior portion of the parasite is also reproducibly detected, which does not co-localize with the rhoptries."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from mass spec fragment DEYYDYLYK, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: rhoptry and punctate posterior within cytoplasm

TGME49_110010 (RON1) sushi domain-containing protein / SCR repeat-containing protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation - rhoptry (neck)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite

TGME49_100100 (RON2) rhoptry neck protein 2

Experimental localisation: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation - rhoptry (neck)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite

TGME49_011290 (ROP15) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Staining for ROP15 appears to extend into the rhoptry necks at the apical end of each rhoptry"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_003990 (ROP12) hypothetical protein, conserved

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation - rhoptry (neck)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_115220 (ROP14) rhoptry protein, putative

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation – rhoptry"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_023920 (RON3) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation - rhoptry (neck)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite

TGME49_027810 (ROP11) Rhoptry kinase family protein ROP11 (incomplete catalytic triad)

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation – rhoptry"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_029010 (RON4) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry neck during tachyzoite, parasitophorous vacuole during tachyzoite, not rhoptry body during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "rhoptry neck (RON) staining occurs at the apical end of each rhoptry identified by ROP2 staining. RON4 is also detected in between the parasites in the PV... immunoelectron microscopy with anti-RON4 antibodies demonstrates that RON4 is localized to the neck portion (arrow) of the rhoptries (R) and is not present in the bulbous bodies of the organelle."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck and PV and not rhoptry body during tachyzoite

TGME49_062730 (ROP16) Rhoptry kinase family protein ROP16

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Staining for ROP16 was with fluorescein-conjugated anti-HA antibody and a parasite line expressing a C-terminal HA-tagged version of ROP16. Co-localization was performed using 594-conjugated anti-ROP1 antibodies."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_112270 (ROP13) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation – rhoptry"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite

TGME49_108080 (ROP5) Rhoptry kinase family protein ROP5 (incomplete catalytic triad)

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "(Table 2) Immunolocalisation – rhoptry"
  • Microscopy type:
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain:
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 16002398
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during tachyzoite