ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

The opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii deploys a diverse legion of invasion and survival proteins.

Zhou, X. W., Kafsack, B. F., Cole, R. N., Beckett, P., Shen, R. F., Carruthers, V. B. (2005 Oct 7, J Biol Chem)

Host cell invasion is an essential step during infection by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan that causes the severe opportunistic disease toxoplasmosis in humans. Recent evidence strongly suggests that proteins discharged from Toxoplasma apical secretory organelles (micronemes, dense granules, and rhoptries) play key roles in host cell invasion and survival during infection. However, to date, only a limited number of secretory proteins have been discovered, and the full spectrum of effector molecules involved in parasite invasion and survival remains unknown. To address these issues, we analyzed a large cohort of freely released Toxoplasma secretory proteins by using two complementary methodologies, two-dimensional electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT, shotgun proteomics). Visualization of Toxoplasma secretory products by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed approximately 100 spots, most of which were successfully identified by protein microsequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. Many proteins were present in multiple species suggesting they are subjected to substantial post-translational modification. Shotgun proteomic analysis of the secretory fraction revealed several additional products, including novel putative adhesive proteins, proteases, and hypothetical secretory proteins similar to products expressed by other related parasites including Plasmodium, the etiologic agent of malaria. A subset of novel proteins were re-expressed as fusions to yellow fluorescent protein, and this initial screen revealed shared and distinct localizations within secretory compartments of T. gondii tachyzoites. These findings provided a uniquely broad view of Toxoplasma secretory proteins that participate in parasite survival and pathogenesis during infection.

PubMed: 16002397, full text

Localisation information

TGME49_090030 hypothetical protein, conserved

Experimental localisation: mitochondrion during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_0203-YFP (green) co-localizes with Mitotracker Red dye in the single mitochondrion of extracellular tachyzoites."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: C terminal YFP tag
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: mitochondria during extracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_015980 hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: extracellular tachyzoite, dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite, distal end of parasitophorous vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_1327-YFP (green) shows punctate localization, which overlaps to a small degree with dense granule markers (GRA4 or GRA7, red)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: C terminal YFP tag
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: punctate and dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite, distal end of vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_110780 (GRA4) hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_1327-YFP (green) shows punctate localization, which overlaps to a small degree with dense granule markers (GRA4 or GRA7, red)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method:
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Comment: immunofluorescence tag not described in publication

TGME49_003310 (GRA7) dense granule protein 7

Experimental localisation: dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_1327-YFP (green) shows punctate localization, which overlaps to a small degree with dense granule markers (GRA4 or GRA7, red)"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_000250 PAN domain-containing protein

Experimental localisation: apical during extracellular tachyzoite, rhoptry during extracellular tachyzoite, microneme during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_2359-YFP and TgTwinScan_2661-YFP (both in green) localize to the apical end of extracellular tachyzoites with partial overlap with the rhoptries (ROP2, red) and micronemes (AMA1, red)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: C terminal YFP tag
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: apical and rhoptry and microneme during extracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_034380 hypothetical protein

Experimental localisation: apical during extracellular tachyzoite, rhoptry during extracellular tachyzoite, microneme during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_2359-YFP and TgTwinScan_2661-YFP (both in green) localize to the apical end of extracellular tachyzoites with partial overlap with the rhoptries (ROP2, red) and micronemes (AMA1, red)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: C terminal YFP tag
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: apical and rhoptry and microneme during extracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_015780 (ROP2/3/4, ROP2, Tg3, Tg4, Tg34) Rhoptry kinase family protein ROP2A (incomplete catalytic triad)

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_2359-YFP and TgTwinScan_2661-YFP (both in green) localize to the apical end of extracellular tachyzoites with partial overlap with the rhoptries (ROP2, red) and micronemes (AMA1, red)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during extracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_055260 (AMA1) apical membrane antigen 1, putative

Experimental localisation: microneme during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "TgTwinScan_2359-YFP and TgTwinScan_2661-YFP (both in green) localize to the apical end of extracellular tachyzoites with partial overlap with the rhoptries (ROP2, red) and micronemes (AMA1, red)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: Monoclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: microneme during extracellular tachyzoite