ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Identification of a subtelomeric gene family expressed during the asexual-sexual stage transition in Plasmodium falciparum.

Eksi, S., Haile, Y., Furuya, T., Ma, L., Su, X., Williamson, K. C. (2005 Sep, Mol Biochem Parasitol)

For malaria transmission, the parasite must undergo sexual differentiation into mature gametocytes. However, the molecular basis for this critical transition in the parasites life cycle is unknown. Six previously uncharacterized genes, Pfg14.744, Pfg14.745, Pfg14.748, Pfg14.763, Pfg14.752 and Pfg6.6 that are members of a 36 gene Plasmodium falciparum-specific subtelomeric superfamily were found to be expressed in parasites that are committed to sexual development as suggested by co-expression of Pfs16 and Pfg27. Northern blots demonstrated that Pfg14.744 and Pfg14.748 were first expressed before the parasites differentiated into morphologically distinct gametocytes, transcription continued to increase until stage II gametocytes were formed and then rapidly decreased. Immunofluorescence assays indicated that both proteins were only produced in the subpopulation of ring stage parasites that are committed to gametocytogenesis and both localized to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV)b of the early ring stage parasites. As the parasites continued to develop Pfg14.748 remained within the parasitophorous vacuole, while Pfg14.744 was detected in the erythrocyte. The 5' flanking region of either gene alone was sufficient to drive early gametocyte specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). In parasites transfected with a plasmid containing the Pfg14.748 5' flanking region immediately upstream of GFP, fluorescence was observed in a small number of schizonts the cycle before stage I gametocytes were observed. This expression pattern is consistent with commitment to sexual differentiation prior to merozoite release and erythrocyte invasion. Further investigation into the role of these genes in the transition from asexual to sexual differentiation could provide new strategies to block malaria transmission.

PubMed: 15996767, full text

Localisation information

PF14_0744 (g14.744) Plasmodium exported protein, unknown function

Experimental localisation: parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte ring, erythrocyte cytoplasm during gametocyte stage iii, not parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte stage iii
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunofluorescence assays indicated that both proteins were only produced in the subpopulation of ring stage parasites that are committed to gametocytogenesis and both localized to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV)b of the early ring stage parasites. As the nascent gametocyte continues to grow Pfg14.744 is detected in the erythrocyte cytoplasm, while Pfg14.748 remains associated with the parasitophorous vacuole (Fig. 4)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 17714601
  • Localisation record: PV during gametocyte ring, Erythrocyte cytoplasm and not PV during stage III gametocyte

PF14_0748 (g14.748) Plasmodium exported protein (PHISTa), unknown function

Experimental localisation: parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte ring, parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte stage iii
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunofluorescence assays indicated that both proteins were only produced in the subpopulation of ring stage parasites that are committed to gametocytogenesis and both localized to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV)b of the early ring stage parasites. As the nascent gametocyte continues to grow Pfg14.744 is detected in the erythrocyte cytoplasm, while Pfg14.748 remains associated with the parasitophorous vacuole (Fig. 4)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 17714601
  • Localisation record: PV during gametocyte rings and stage III gametocyte

PFD0310w (Pfs16) sexual stage-specific protein precursor

Experimental localisation: gametocyte
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "The parasites were then dual labeled with rabbit IgG antibodies generated against MSP1 (MR4/ATCC, Manassas, VA), a marker for all early stage parasites, or Pfs16, a marker for gametocytes, and mouse IgG antibodies generated against Pfg14.744 (744) or Pfg14.748 (748) followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-rabbit IgG and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-labeled anti-mouse IgG. "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: during gametocyte

PFI1475w (MSP1, MSP-1, msp1 unprocessed, msp1, Msp-1 19, MSP1 19) merozoite surface protein 1

Experimental localisation: gametocyte
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "The parasites were then dual labeled with rabbit IgG antibodies generated against MSP1 (MR4/ATCC, Manassas, VA), a marker for all early stage parasites, or Pfs16, a marker for gametocytes, and mouse IgG antibodies generated against Pfg14.744 (744) or Pfg14.748 (748) followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-rabbit IgG and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-labeled anti-mouse IgG. "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: during gametocyte

PF14_0744 (g14.744) Plasmodium exported protein, unknown function

Experimental localisation: parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte committed early ring, parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte stage i, parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte stage ii, not gametocyte stage iii, not gametocyte stage iv
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunofluorescence assays indicated that both proteins were only produced in the subpopulation of ring stage parasites that are committed to gametocytogenesis and both localized to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV)b of the early ring stage parasites. As the parasites continued to develop Pfg14.748 remained within the parasitophorous vacuole, while Pfg14.744 was detected in the erythrocyte."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: PV during gametocyte committed early ring and gametocyte stage I and gametocyte stage II, not during gametocyte stage III and gametocyte stage IV

PF14_0748 (g14.748) Plasmodium exported protein (PHISTa), unknown function

Experimental localisation: parasitophorous vacuole during gametocyte committed early ring, erythrocyte cytoplasm during gametocyte stage i, erythrocyte cytoplasm during gametocyte stage ii, not gametocyte stage iii, not gametocyte stage iv
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunofluorescence assays indicated that both proteins were only produced in the subpopulation of ring stage parasites that are committed to gametocytogenesis and both localized to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV)b of the early ring stage parasites. As the parasites continued to develop Pfg14.748 remained within the parasitophorous vacuole, while Pfg14.744 was detected in the erythrocyte."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: PV during gametocyte committed early ring, RBC during gametocyte stage I and gametocyte stage II, not during gametocyte stage III and gametocyte stage IV