ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

The cathepsin B of Toxoplasma gondii, toxopain-1, is critical for parasite invasion and rhoptry protein processing.

Que, X., Ngo, H., Lawton, J., Gray, M., Liu, Q., Engel, J., Brinen, L., Ghosh, P., Joiner, K. A., Reed, S. L. (2002 Jul 12, J Biol Chem)

Cysteine proteinases play a major role in invasion and intracellular survival of a number of pathogenic parasites. We cloned a single copy gene, tgcp1, from Toxoplasma gondii and refolded recombinant enzyme to yield active proteinase. Substrate specificity of the enzyme and homology modeling identified the proteinase as a cathepsin B. Specific cysteine proteinase inhibitors interrupted invasion by tachyzoites. The T. gondii cathepsin B localized to rhoptries, secretory organelles required for parasite invasion into cells. Processing of the pro-rhoptry protein 2 to mature rhoptry proteins was delayed by incubation of extracellular parasites with a cathepsin B inhibitor prior to pulse-chase immunoprecipitation. Delivery of cathepsin B to mature rhoptries was impaired in organisms with disruptions in rhoptry formation by expression of a dominant negative micro1-adaptin. Similar disruption of rhoptry formation was observed when infected fibroblasts were treated with a specific inhibitor of cathepsin B, generating small and poorly developed rhoptries. This first evidence for localization of a cysteine proteinase to the unusual rhoptry secretory organelle of an apicomplexan parasite suggests that the rhoptries may be a prototype of a lysosome-related organelle and provides a critical link between cysteine proteinases and parasite invasion for this class of organism.

PubMed: 12000756, full text

Localisation information

TGME49_049670 (tgcp1, toxopain-1, CP1, cathepsin B, CPB) cysteine proteinase, putative

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during intracellular tachyzoite, endosomal vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite, parasitophorous vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "The T. gondii cathepsin B localized to rhoptries, secretory organelles required for parasite invasion into cells. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY071839.1
  • Localisation record: rhoptry and endosomal vacuole and PV during intracellular tachyzoite

TGME49_015780 (ROP2/3/4, ROP2, Tg3, Tg4, Tg34) Rhoptry kinase family protein ROP2A (incomplete catalytic triad)

Experimental localisation: rhoptry during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Species: Toxoplasma gondii
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Similar colocalization of toxopain-1 and ROP2 to the rhoptries was also observed using the ROP2 polyclonal antibodies (data not shown). "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during intracellular tachyzoite