ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

Four plasmepsins are active in the Plasmodium falciparum food vacuole, including a protease with an active-site histidine.

Banerjee, R., Liu, J., Beatty, W., Pelosof, L., Klemba, M., Goldberg, D. E. (2002 Jan 22, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A)

Hemoglobin degradation is a metabolic process that is central to the growth and maturation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two aspartic proteases that initiate degradation, plasmepsins (PMs) I and II, have been identified and extensively characterized. Eight additional PM genes are present in the P. falciparum genome. To better understand the enzymology of hemoglobin degradation, it is necessary to determine which of these genes are expressed when hemoglobin degradation is occurring, which encode active enzymes, and which gene products are found in the food vacuole where catabolism takes place. Our genome-wide analysis reveals that PM I, II, and IV and histo-aspartic protease encode hemoglobin-degrading food vacuole proteases. Despite having a histidine in place of one of the catalytic aspartic acids conserved in other aspartic proteases, histo-aspartic protease is an active hydrolase.

PubMed: 11782538, full text

Localisation information

PF14_0076 (FAF-2, aspartic hemoglobinase I, PMI, PM1, Plasmepsin I, PM I) plasmepsin I

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "PM II, PM IV, and HAP colocalized with hemozoin in the FV, similar to results reported for PM I (11). Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: Monoclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: FV during trophozoite

PF14_0077 (PM II, PM2, PMII, Plasmepsin II) plasmepsin II

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "PM II, PM IV, and HAP colocalized with hemozoin in the FV, similar to results reported for PM I (11). Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY878729, inconsistent 5' UTR
  • Localisation record: FV during trophozoite

PF14_0078 (HAP) plasmepsin III,histo-aspartic protease

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "PM II, PM IV, and HAP colocalized with hemozoin in the FV, similar to results reported for PM I (11). Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: Monoclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AJ009990, inconsistent 3' UTR
  • Localisation record: FV during trophozoite

PF14_0075 (PM IV, PM4) plasmepsin IV

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "PM II, PM IV, and HAP colocalized with hemozoin in the FV, similar to results reported for PM I (11). Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY878735.1, inconsistent 5' UTR
  • Localisation record: FV during trophozoite

PF13_0133 (PM V, PM5, PMV) plasmepsin V

Experimental localisation: not food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "In contrast, PM V, IX, and X had more diffuse patterns and were excluded from the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY878740, inconsistent 5' UTR
  • Localisation record: Not FV during trophozoite

PF14_0281 (PM IX) plasmepsin IX

Experimental localisation: not food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "In contrast, PM V, IX, and X had more diffuse patterns and were excluded from the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY878765, gene model inconsistent
  • Localisation record: Not FV during trophozoite

PF08_0108 (PM X) plasmepsin X

Experimental localisation: not food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "In contrast, PM V, IX, and X had more diffuse patterns and were excluded from the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AY878781, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: Not FV during trophozoite

PF14_0076 (FAF-2, aspartic hemoglobinase I, PMI, PM1, Plasmepsin I, PM I) plasmepsin I

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from X75787, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: FV during troph

PF14_0077 (PM II, PM2, PMII, Plasmepsin II) plasmepsin II

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from L10740, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: FV during troph

PF14_0075 (PM IV, PM4) plasmepsin IV

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from 15491999
  • Localisation record: FV during troph

PF14_0078 (HAP) plasmepsin III,histo-aspartic protease

Experimental localisation: food vacuole during trophozoite
  • Species: Plasmodium falciparum
  • Quote inferring localisation: "Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that PM I, II, and IV and HAP are in the FV (Fig. 1 B). Gold labeling was found exclusively within the FV. "
  • Microscopy type: Light, EM
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: HB3
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AJ009990, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: FV during troph