ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

TGME49_110780 (GRA4)

hypothetical protein, a gene from Toxoplasma gondii

Compiled localisation
dense granule during bradyzoite and extracellular tachyzoite and intracellular tachyzoite and sporozoite and tachyzoite
not parasitophorous vacuole during bradyzoite and merozoite and sporozoite parasitophorous vacuole 1 and sporozoite
parasitophorous vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite and tachyzoite
during bradyzoite and not merozoite and sporozoite
oocyst wall during tachyzoite
not rhoptry during sporozoite
not oocyst wall and not parasite plasma membrane during bradyzoite

Who localised this protein by microscopy?

Harper, J. M., Huynh, M. H., Coppens, I., Parussini, F., Moreno, S., Carruthers, V. B.
A cleavable propeptide influences Toxoplasma infection by facilitating the trafficking and secretion of the TgMIC2-M2AP invasion complex. (2006 Oct, Mol Biol Cell) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

dense granule

Zhou, X. W., Kafsack, B. F., Cole, R. N., Beckett, P., Shen, R. F., Carruthers, V. B.
The opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii deploys a diverse legion of invasion and survival proteins. (2005 Oct 7, J Biol Chem) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite

Karsten, V., Hegde, R. S., Sinai, A. P., Yang, M., Joiner, K. A.
Transmembrane domain modulates sorting of membrane proteins in Toxoplasma gondii. (2004 Jun 18, J Biol Chem) PubMed / full text
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dense granule during tachyzoite
  • "shortening the LDL receptor TMD to a length similar to that of GRA4 resulted in dense granule localization, whereas lengthening the GRA4 TMD resulted in rerouting to the Golgi."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: BAP tag
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: dense granule during tachyzoite
  • Comment: BAP fused to the cytosolic tail of the protein, not the whole endogenous protein
  • Other genes localised in this publication: -

Ferguson, D. J.
Use of molecular and ultrastructural markers to evaluate stage conversion of Toxoplasma gondii in both the intermediate and definitive host. (2004 Mar 9, Int J Parasitol) PubMed / full text
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parasitophorous vacuole during tachyzoite, during bradyzoite and sporozoite and not merozoite, dense granule and not oocyst wall and not parasite plasma membrane and not parasitophorous vacuole during bradyzoite

Brydges, S. D., Carruthers, V. B.
Mutation of an unusual mitochondrial targeting sequence of SODB2 produces multiple targeting fates in Toxoplasma gondii. (2003 Nov 15, J Cell Sci) PubMed / full text
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dense granule and parasitophorous vacuole during intracellular tachyzoite
  • "When cells were stained with antibodies to GRA4, a protein known to target the dense granules and PV, extensive colocalization was seen"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 2F
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: PV and dense granule during intracellular tachyzoite
  • Other genes localised in this publication: iron-containing superoxide dismutase, acyl carrier protein

Labruyere, E., Lingnau, M., Mercier, C., Sibley, L. D.
Differential membrane targeting of the secretory proteins GRA4 and GRA6 within the parasitophorous vacuole formed by Toxoplasma gondii. (1999 Aug 20, Mol Biochem Parasitol) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite
  • "GRA2, GRA4 and GRA6 are colocalized in dense granules"
  • Microscopy type: EM
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: RH
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: dense granule during extracellular tachyzoite
  • Other genes localised in this publication: 28 kDa antigen, granule antigen protein GRA6

Ferguson, D. J., Cesbron-Delauw, M. F., Dubremetz, J. F., Sibley, L. D., Joiner, K. A., Wright, S.
The expression and distribution of dense granule proteins in the enteric (Coccidian) forms of Toxoplasma gondii in the small intestine of the cat. (1999 Mar, Exp Parasitol) PubMed / full text
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during not merozoite, dense granule during bradyzoite and sporozoite and tachyzoite, oocyst wall and parasitophorous vacuole during tachyzoite, not parasitophorous vacuole during bradyzoite and merozoite and sporozoite

Ferguson, D. J., Jacobs, D., Saman, E., Dubremetz, J. F., Wright, S. E.
In vivo expression and distribution of dense granule protein 7 (GRA7) in the exoenteric (tachyzoite, bradyzoite) and enteric (coccidian) forms of Toxoplasma gondii. (1999 Sep, Parasitology) PubMed / full text
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dense granule and not rhoptry during sporozoite
  • "In double labelled sporozoites, there appeared to be co-localization of GRA7 and GRA4 (Fig. 1 O) but not with a rhoptry protein (Fig. 1 P) confirming the dense granule location of GRA7."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: M3, RRA
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: dense granule and not rhoptry during sporozoite
  • Other genes localised in this publication: dense granule protein 7, nucleoside-triphosphatase I

Tilley, M., Fichera, M. E., Jerome, M. E., Roos, D. S., White, M. W.
Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites form a transient parasitophorous vacuole that is impermeable and contains only a subset of dense-granule proteins. (1997 Nov, Infect Immun) PubMed / full text
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not parasitophorous vacuole during sporozoite parasitophorous vacuole 1
  • "While sporozoites inhabited the distinctive PV1, the staining of anti-GRA1, -GRA2, and -GRA4 antibodies was confined to dense granules within the sporozoite cytoplasm and no staining was observed outside of the parasite itself"
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: VEG
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: not PV during sporozoite parasitophorous vacuole 1
  • Other genes localised in this publication: dense granule protein 1 / major antigenp24, 28 kDa antigen, dense granule protein 5 precursor, nucleoside-triphosphatase I

Achbarou, A., Mercereau-Puijalon, O., Sadak, A., Fortier, B., Leriche, M. A., Camus, D., Dubremetz, J. F.
Differential targeting of dense granule proteins in the parasitophorous vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii. (1991 Dec, Parasitology) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

dense granule during tachyzoite
  • "All four proteins were found in dense granules by immunoelectron microscopy; in T. gondii-infected cells, they were found in the vacuolar network but, in addition, GRA 3 was also detected on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane."
  • Microscopy type: EM
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain:
  • Gene model mapping comments: Blast from AF161267.1, annotation matches
  • Localisation record: dense granule during tachyzoite
  • Comment: Couldn't find Full Text – strain not recorded in abstract
  • Other genes localised in this publication: dense granule protein 1 / major antigenp24, 28 kDa antigen, dense granule protein 3

Orthology

OrthoMCL

Part of OrthoMCL group OG4_115832

Localised Genes in this Group
Other Apicomplexan Genes in this Group
Non-Apicomplexan Genes in this OrthoMCL Group with Gene Ontology 'Inferred from Direct Assay (IDA)' Cellular Component Terms
    There are no non-apicomplexan genes that have manually annotated evidence codes.

Amino Acid Sequence

>TGME49_110780 hypothetical protein
MQGTWFSLFVVVMVSHLAFGGECSFGSYLADMAGLTGREDKEHHAAKKRYYHSMYGNKTPYPYADGQQGSPPPQGQLLII
QNPDGSFMIVDQQGVPQAPQAAGGPGSPMNGGYYMPAGVYTAQVVPGTPGHPVQAIPQQPLRTQATATYYHPAAAPPPGP
SVFVFTPSSVQPGAEVTPGYSGLQLRQQSQYDYSYPGTTSTPTPPRPASYGYPAFPAFPRLPAFSDSVSVSTEDSGLTVV
RDSSSSESTVTPADEAASESEEGDKTSRKSKVKKGVLTGLGVAATLAAAAAAAKAVKGFGGTRTSTAPAEAGKTELDDGY
RPPPFNPRPSPYAELLKDLERMRKE

Gene-Specific Links for TGME49_110780

General Sub-Cellular Localisation Links

  • TargetP, prediction of signal peptides, as well as chloroplast and mitochondrial transit peptides
  • OrthoMCL, automatic clustering of orthologous groups of proteins