ApiLoc - A database of published protein sub-cellular localisation in Apicomplexa

version 3 (curated until May 28, 2011)

PF11_0168 (RON4, Pf225)

rhoptry neck protein 4, a gene from Plasmodium falciparum

Compiled localisation
rhoptry neck during extracellular merozoite and late schizont and schizont and segmenter
not rhoptry bulb during extracellular merozoite and segmenter
moving junction during invasion and merozoite invasion
microneme and rhoptry during merozoite

Who localised this protein by microscopy?

Richard, D., Bartfai, R., Volz, J., Ralph, S. A., Muller, S., Stunnenberg, H. G., Cowman, A. F.
A genome-wide chromatin-associated nuclear peroxiredoxin from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (2011 Apr 1, J Biol Chem) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

moving junction during merozoite invasion
  • "No anti-PfnPrx (MCP1) signal was found at the tight junction, visualized by staining with an antibody against the RON4 protein, a well characterized marker of this transient structure (25)"
  • Microscopy type: Fixed Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: tight junction during merozoite invasion
  • Other genes localised in this publication: merozoite capping protein 1

Richard, D., MacRaild, C. A., Riglar, D. T., Chan, J. A., Foley, M., Baum, J., Ralph, S. A., Norton, R. S., Cowman, A. F.
Interaction between Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 and the rhoptry neck protein complex defines a key step in the erythrocyte invasion process of malaria parasites. (2010 May 7, J Biol Chem) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck and not rhoptry bulb during extracellular merozoite
  • "IFAs using the anti-PfRON antibodies reveal staining of the apical tip of free merozoite, in close apposition with the rhoptry bulb markers PfRAP1 and PfRAMA, suggesting a rhoptry neck localisation."
  • Microscopy type: fixed light
  • Microscopy method: antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck and not rhoptry bulb during free merozoite
  • Other genes localised in this publication: rhoptry-associated protein 1, rhoptry neck protein 5, putative, rhoptry-associated membrane antigen

Taylor, H. M., McRobert, L., Grainger, M., Sicard, A., Dluzewski, A. R., Hopp, C. S., Holder, A. A., Baker, D. A.
The malaria parasite cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase plays a central role in blood-stage schizogony. (2010 Jan, Eukaryot Cell) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck during schizont
  • "The primary antibody was a monoclonal antibody that reacts with the P. falciparum rhoptry nick protein Pf225 (green)."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: Monoclonal antibody
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck during schizont
  • Other genes localised in this publication: cGMP-dependent protein kinase

Proellocks, N. I., Kats, L. M., Sheffield, D. A., Hanssen, E., Black, C. G., Waller, K. L., Coppel, R. L.
Characterisation of PfRON6, a Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry neck protein with a novel cysteine-rich domain. (2009 May, Int J Parasitol) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck during late schizont

Cao, J., Kaneko, O., Thongkukiatkul, A., Tachibana, M., Otsuki, H., Gao, Q., Tsuboi, T., Torii, M.
Rhoptry neck protein RON2 forms a complex with microneme protein AMA1 in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. (2009 Mar, Parasitol Int) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

microneme during merozoite
  • "Colocalization of PfRON2 with PfRON4 (rhoptry neck marker) was observed but neither colocalized with PfClag3.1 (rhoptry body marker) nor PfAMA1 (microneme marker). "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: antibody
  • Strain: Dd2
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: microneme during merozoite
  • Other genes localised in this publication: rhoptry neck protein 2, apical membrane antigen 1, cytoadherence linked asexual protein 3.2

Morahan, B. J., Sallmann, G. B., Huestis, R., Dubljevic, V., Waller, K. L.
Plasmodium falciparum: genetic and immunogenic characterisation of the rhoptry neck protein PfRON4. (2009 Aug, Exp Parasitol) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

moving junction during merozoite invasion
  • "Co-localisation IFAs were performed on mature schizont-infected red blood cells and ruptured merozoites using our anti-PfRON4 antisera and antisera against the rhoptry marker proteins RAMA and Pf34 ([Proellocks et al., 2007 and [Topolska et al., 2004). Co-localisation of PfRON4 with both RAMA and Pf34 is observed, with marginally better co-localisation observed with Pf34, a reported rhoptry neck protein (Proellocks et al., 2007). "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: Monoclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from publication, PlasmoDB 6.0 annotation agrees
  • Localisation record: tight junction during merozoite invasion
  • Other genes localised in this publication: rhoptry-associated membrane antigen, apical merozoite protein

Baum, J., Chen, L., Healer, J., Lopaticki, S., Boyle, M., Triglia, T., Ehlgen, F., Ralph, S. A., Beeson, J. G., Cowman, A. F.
Reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 - an essential adhesin involved in invasion of human erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum. (2009 Feb, Int J Parasitol) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck and not rhoptry bulb during extracellular merozoite and segmenter, moving junction during invasion

Richard, D., Kats, L. M., Langer, C., Black, C. G., Mitri, K., Boddey, J. A., Cowman, A. F., Coppel, R. L.
Identification of rhoptry trafficking determinants and evidence for a novel sorting mechanism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (2009 Mar, PLoS Pathog) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck
  • "Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrates that truncated RAP1 (10 nm beads) in D10RAP1 parasites is localised in the rhoptry neck, whereas full-length RAP1 in D10 (wild-type) parasites is localised in the rhoptry bulb. PfRON4 (15 nm beads) is localised in the rhoptry neck in both parasite lines."
  • Microscopy type: EM
  • Microscopy method: polyclonal antibody directly to protein
  • Strain: D10
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck
  • Comment: stage information not found in publication
  • Other genes localised in this publication: rhoptry-associated protein 1, serine repeat antigen 5

Baum, J., Tonkin, C. J., Paul, A. S., Rug, M., Smith, B. J., Gould, S. B., Richard, D., Pollard, T. D., Cowman, A. F.
A malaria parasite formin regulates actin polymerization and localizes to the parasite-erythrocyte moving junction during invasion. (2008 Mar 13, Cell Host Microbe) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

moving junction during merozoite invasion
  • "Prior to invasion, PfFormin1 and PfRON4 colocalize at the apical pole of free merozoites (Figure3A). However, in the rare event of capturing arrested invasion, fluorescence of both PfFormin1 and PfRON4 appear to split to form two distinct foci (a ring in three dimensions) either side of the merozoite at the interface with the erythrocyte (Figure3B). This is consistent with their location at the tight junction during merozoite invasion (Figure3; schematic). "
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method:
  • Strain: 3D7
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: tight junction during merozoite invasion
  • Other genes localised in this publication: formin 1, putative, formin 2, putative, formin homology 2 domain-containing protein

Gaur, D., Singh, S., Singh, S., Jiang, L., Diouf, A., Miller, L. H.
Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte homology protein 4 binds to erythrocytes and blocks invasion. (2007 Nov 6, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry during merozoite
  • "The native PfRH4 was found to be localized at the apical pole of the merozoite (Fig. 6 A and B). Because there was not perfect colocalization with known rhoptry and microneme marker proteins, RON4 and AMA-1, respectively (Fig. 6 A and B), further analysis by immunoelectron microscopy is essential for determining the precise location of PfRH4 in the merozoite."
  • Microscopy type: Light
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain:
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry during merozoite
  • Comment: strain information not found
  • Other genes localised in this publication: reticulocyte binding protein homologue 4, apical membrane antigen 1

Singh, S., Plassmeyer, M., Gaur, D., Miller, L. H.
Mononeme: a new secretory organelle in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites identified by localization of rhomboid-1 protease. (2007 Dec 11, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck

Alexander, D. L., Arastu-Kapur, S., Dubremetz, J. F., Boothroyd, J. C.
Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 binds a rhoptry neck protein homologous to TgRON4, a component of the moving junction in Toxoplasma gondii. (2006 Jul, Eukaryot Cell) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck during schizont
  • "PfRON4 localizes to the rhoptry necks. "
  • Microscopy type: EM
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain:
  • Gene model mapping comments: Taken directly from publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry neck during schizont
  • Comment: strain information not found
  • Other genes localised in this publication: -

Roger, N., Dubremetz, J. F., Delplace, P., Fortier, B., Tronchin, G., Vernes, A.
Characterization of a 225 kilodalton rhoptry protein of Plasmodium falciparum. (1988 Jan 15, Mol Biochem Parasitol) PubMed / full text
   more detail about this publication

rhoptry neck
  • "The corresponding antigen was localized in the peduncle of rhoptries by immunoelectronmicroscopy. "
  • Microscopy type: EM
  • Microscopy method: monoclonal antibody
  • Strain:
  • Gene model mapping comments: inferred from another publication
  • Localisation record: rhoptry pundicle
  • Comment: No fulltext available online
  • Other genes localised in this publication: -

Orthology

OrthoMCL

Part of OrthoMCL group OG4_21586

Localised Genes in this Group
Other Apicomplexan Genes in this Group
Non-Apicomplexan Genes in this OrthoMCL Group with Gene Ontology 'Inferred from Direct Assay (IDA)' Cellular Component Terms
    There are no non-apicomplexan genes that have manually annotated evidence codes.

Amino Acid Sequence

>PF11_0168 rhoptry neck protein 4
MSSVRFFLCIFLVLFTFIDIVKPFKGNYGEANFSFFQATPASHIEEPQKTESTDAQSNITQNEEINNTKPLQENITNNQQ
NSNEQQNNNEQQNNIEQQNNNIQQNNIDTSISHVPNDTIKNPIDNSNISNLDKSNDTNNVIKHEENNQTKENNLETIKHT
EPLTNQNTNEVKINDHNEHEKNTEENKIEEQYNNINHHSHDINKNQSINNNMNNENADKNVPHLDQSAMSNEKHINEHTT
NHPIESHTGENNHDKINEPIPIEHATTPTNEPIPIEHAATPTNEPIPIEHAATPTNEPIHIEHVATPANEPTHSEHATTT
TNEPIHIEHAATPTNEHIHNEHATTTTNEPTHNEHAATITHEPTHNEHTTTPTNEPIHNEHATTPTNEPIPIEHIATPAN
EPTHNEHATTTTNEPTHNEHTTTPTNEPIHNEHATTPTNEPIPIEHIATPANEPTHNEHATTTTNEPTHNEHATTTTNEP
THNEHATTTTNEPIHNEHATATTNESTHNEHATTTTNEPTHNEHSTTPTNESTHSENATTSTNEQHSHDQNTEVHPNDKL
ALVPFQGIKNPIPSNESQPIISFPNEDDNHAQNEGSINAPSEGEHNNTDNKEGPIITPLEGEQAGTAHKEDVTHKHMVGE
HVPPQKTHHGPIITPVGGNHVPPQTHHAHIITPVGGEHAHGQGNNDTTYVTMNTDESSSSDTKGEHSNLRSYNKNMNNNH
AQRDQYDSDTLNSEGSDDAYSSMQQNFEKNGIDSFKGKGLHVSLRERIIIEIMESAKNGIDGLLKLKDSKDSGKLFMEAL
EKLNINMKDLKKDKNLISLEVYDKILSTMFKILTEMSFYEDSKFYETLGIKKDILNQSLKDIKIKMLRKLGVSYSRLPPI
IKHTEGKCAIKDIIISISSKELAQRMAIMFTKWLAPDEYGAVVDYENNVELNVLCSGAPILIQQWKYYQNMLGFEEDKDH
AYLGLIDELLVMNKRYSQNKDYVETLEKIKKSKVFKHCTKIMRIGGKVSSVPFNYENVKKPSSSIIGSLGNLIKANISTY
YKATAQRINSYFHYTEKKSKKSSPLKIISVCTLLHLTDMLYKCSDENSNGVMDLYNLQLNTLNMKGKMVLQYLVHLKFLT
QEKKNQLKEICEPQNGLIDETLTKMLILLSTDSHELLSHELENKGFDEDYIQDEIKNINESDNNIRDKEEDDAEKMIFDD
L

Gene-Specific Links for PF11_0168

General Sub-Cellular Localisation Links